Cites & Insights: Crawford at Large
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Libraries · Policy · Technology · Media


Selection from Cites & Insights 6, Number 12: October 2006


Open Access Perspective Part I

Pioneer OA Journals: The Arc of Enthusiasm, Five Years Later

They weren’t generally called Open Access journals in 1995: If that term existed before 2001 or 2002, it certainly wasn’t the standard name for free online scholarship. But there were examples of free online scholarship, some dating back to 1987. In the May 2001 Cites & Insights, I explored the question: “Do free scholarly electronic journals last?”

The title of that essay, Getting Past the Arc of Enthusiasm, revealed one finding I had suspected going in: It was not unusual for one of these pioneering efforts to start out with a bang, fueled by the enthusiasm of its founders, and fade away in an “arc of enthusiasm,” with articles and the journal itself disappearing after a few years.

In the course of the 2001 essay, I casually asserted a definition that’s been cited elsewhere: If a journal lasts at least six years, it can be considered a “lasting” title even if it later goes out of business. More than half of the open access journals founded in 1995 or before that were refereed and “visible” (see below) were still publishing six years later; that’s a good record. I thought it would be interesting to see how they’re doing after five more years. Thus, this update.

Background

The original article is still available (citesandinsights.info/civ1i5.pdf). These extracts describe how I arrived at the original findings.

ARL’s Directory of Electronic Journals, Newsletters and Academic Discussion Lists for 1995 includes 104 items that appear to be free refereed scholarly electronic journals. Those journals still publishing in 2000, a minimum of six years, can be considered lasting titles. Some electronic scholarly journals started years before..

While 1995 may seem like ancient times for the Web, Mosaic (the first widely-available browser) was well established by then. Most academic libraries had Internet access, many used various forms of electronic communication, and more than a few were building Web sites.

Fifty-seven of the 104 journals in the 1995 ARL Directory had Web or Gopher addresses (URLs). Seventeen of those addresses still worked in early 2001. Finding the others proved fascinating and frustrating. After working with a variety of tools, I found Eureka and Google most useful.

The RLG Union Catalog via Eureka provides a good first cut answer as to whether a journal has been noticed by academic libraries or the Library of Congress. For nineteen titles, not a single record could be found, a bad sign for academic significance. For most of the others, I could click on a cataloged Web address to locate the journal itself—and most of those addresses worked. Where Eureka failed (through lack of records, lack of URLs, or dead URLs), Google usually succeeded—not always in finding the journal itself, but finding evidence that the journal did exist at one time.

Early free electronic journals have done better than might have been expected. Eighteen were misdescribed or have changed direction. Ten are missing in action—or have nothing but e-mail addresses, which makes them invisible to the larger scholarly community. Five are so confusing that their status is unclear. Twenty seen to have fallen prey to the arc of enthusiasm: after a few good years, the journals have died or become comatose. Two journals ceased for reasons other than declining interest.

Twenty-one journals still publish a small but steady flow of manuscripts. Twenty-eight journals still publish substantial numbers of refereed articles.

Of 86 titles that were available as free refereed scholarly journals in 1995, 49 (57%) still publish six years later. Given the difficulties of coordinating refereed journals and the problems inherent in “free,” that’s a remarkable record.

Reviewing this material, I find that three of the 86 titles actually began publishing in 1996 or later. Those three have been eliminated.

Checking the Survivors

This time around, I wasn’t working from a published list, which means I didn’t have the original URLs. Instead I used three freely available tools, in this order:

     The Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), probably today’s primary access point for tightly-defined OA journals (scholarly, refereed papers, free to download and copy).

     Worldcat.org for journals not present in DOAJ, using a phrase search for the journal title, checking URLs in the Details view or on library catalog pages.

     Google, again using a phrase search, for cases where no Worldcat.org links yielded live results. (There were no cases where Worldcat.org didn’t yield a result of some sort.)

I skipped 18 “misdescribed” publications because they were either not journals, not scholarly, or were priced (not free online) in 2001. I also skipped two journals known to have ceased for reasons other than the arc of enthusiasm (one because the publisher, DEC, was purchased by Compaq, the other because the online version didn’t work out).

I checked ten journals flagged as “Mysteries” in 2001 because “I was unable to find any working Web presence for them as e-journals in early 2000 or early 2001.” All ten are still mysteries. I could not locate archival issues in nine cases. In the tenth case (SPEED) there appeared to be four issues all prior to 1997—but attempting to reach them froze my PC, so I’m not willing to assert that they’re actually there

I no longer believe the distinction between “small successes” and “strong survivors”—based on an arbitrary cutoff of 10 or more refereed papers per year—makes sense. In some narrow fields, half a dozen good papers each year represent a significant contribution.

This year’s discussion looks at long-term availability for dead and live journals and breaks them into five groups:

     Special Cases, journals that don’t currently qualify as open access.

     Oddities, cases where I wasn’t sure what to make of the situation. Originally five journals. Two of the five have become visible and moved to the Arc of Enthusiasm, leaving three oddities.

     Arc of Enthusiasm, cases where I was able to find the publication in 2000, 2001, or 2006, but where the publication lasted less than six years. Some journals originally in this category have restarted and are now in Surviving Pioneers; others lasted six years or more, a respectable life for a journal, and are now in Ceased Pioneers. Unfortunately, several of the fourteen journals now in this category don’t have visible archives (or at least I couldn’t find back issues).

     Ceased Pioneers, eleven open access journals that lasted at least six years but have no recent content.

     Surviving Pioneers, journals that began no later than 1995 and have content as recently as 2004, with articles freely accessible. This combines the former “small successes” and “strong survivors” categories. I’m sad to say that eight of the 51 journals originally in these categories or that moved into these categories disappeared before 2004—and three more noted immediately below (“special cases”) no longer qualify as open access (and in two cases may have been misdescribed originally). That’s about a 25% failure rate—not ideal, but not terrible. 40 of the original 86—46%—have survived as OA journals for at least a decade.

Journals within each category are listed alphabetically with notes on publication patterns (usually providing number of issues and number of apparently formal articles each year). I also note which of the three web sources first provided useful access: DOAJ if not stated, WorldCat, or Google. (I have no doubt that WorldCat would have provided access in all DOAJ cases and that Google would provide access in nearly all cases.)

Publication patterns beginning in 1993 appear as year: issues/articles or, for journals that don’t have issues, year: articles. For 2006, partial results as of the first week of September appear [in brackets]. “Many” appears when there are dozens of articles or article-equivalents in a year and the articles aren’t numbered. A “+” after the number of article-equivalents indicates that the journal includes significant amounts of other material such as book reviews. Some of these journals began earlier than 1993.

When a live archive is available, I note “Full archive back to” and the earliest date apparently available (in bold if earlier than 1993). In most but not all cases (not annotated), early articles have been reformatted in HTML—but there are some ejournals where fairly recent issues are still ASCII-only (and at least one where the archive is a Gopher site).

Special Cases

Classics Ireland. WorldCat. 1994: 10; 1995: 11; 1996: 13; 1997: 8+; 1998: 6+; 1999: 7+; 2000: 6+. 2001: 9+. 2002: 5+. Journal apparently continues, but in priced print form only. Full archive back to 1994.

Electronic Journal of Communication. WorldCat. 1993: 3/23; 1994: 2/21; 1995: 3/24; 1996: 4/18+; 1997: 4/16; 1998: 3/18+; 1999: 2/25+; 2000: 2/17; 2001: 3/21; 2002: 2/14; 2003: 2/13; 2004: 3/19; 2005: 1/6. While archival issues are available back to 1990, the articles are not freely available. Thus, this is not (now) an OA journal.

Government Information in Canada. WorldCat. 1994: 2/13; 1995: 4/15; 1996: 4/15+; 1997: 3/12; 1998: 2/2; 1999: 4/5; 2000: 2/2. Ceased 2000. No open access archive available: Not OA.

Oddities

Grist On-line. WorldCat. “Network Journal of Language Arts.” Pattern: 1993: 3 issues; 1994: 2 issues; 1995: 2 issues; 1996: 1 issue. Ceased July 30, 2002—but I was unable to reach any content later than 1996. Listed as an “oddity” because it apparently existed in some non-journal form between 1997 and 2002—but I find no trace of that existence. Full archive for the eight issues from 1993 through 1996.

InterJournal. DOAJ. Pattern: in early 2000, 225 accepted items on Web site, dates on individual articles. In early 2001: 620 manuscripts, of which 328 are supposed to be final. Divided into three parts: CX: Complex systems (318), PX: Polymer and Complex Fluids (20), BG: Genetics (2). Status in 2006: While the site is live, it mostly hangs. Other than a note about “server migration” in 2005, the status of this publication is vague. Unable to verify existence of archive in 2006.

RhetNet. WorldCat. Tiny amount of odd material on Web site; appears to be wholly inactive since mid-1997. As of 2006, the archives only partly work.

The Arc of Enthusiasm

Some of these journals may have started before 1993, the point at which I started checking issue and article patterns. Some of these could come back to life, to be sure—but most seem to follow a pattern that becomes familiar. “Ceased” indicates that the journal explicitly ceased publication as opposed to fading away.

Asia-Pacific Exchange (Electronic) Journal [APEX-J]. WorldCat. 1994: 2/4; 1995: 2/5; 1996: 1/1. No visible archive.

Dogwood Blossoms. Google. 1993: 5/12; 1994: 4/30; 1995: 2/10. Full archive back to 1993 (with glitches).

EJournal. WorldCat. 1993: 3/3; 1994: 4/5+; 1995: 2/3; 1996: 3/1. Full archive back to 1993.

Electronic Journal of Strategic Information Systems (SIS-EJOURNAL). Unable to locate in 2006. Appears to be one each in 1994 and 1995, nothing since. No workable links; no visible archives.

Electronic Journal on Virtual Culture (originally Arachnet Electronic Journal on Virtual Culture). WorldCat. 1993: 7/14; 1994: 4/25; 1995: 3/8; 1996: 1/3. Weakly available, gopher back to 1994, more directly for 1996.

Gassho. WorldCat. 1993: 1/3; 1994: 3/10. “On hiatus” since 1998—but no visible archives.

International Journal of Continuing Education Practice. WorldCat. One issue (1994); formally ceased 1/95. Now a priced journal from MCB University Press. Single OA issue continues to be available.

Journal of Mathematical Systems, Estimation, and Control. WorldCat. 1994-96: Quarterly, >20 each year. 1997: 3/15; 1998: 2/21. Ceased 1998. Full archive back to 1994.

Organized Thoughts. WorldCat. Nine issues published between 1992 and 1994; ceased 1994. Gopher archive to 1992.

Psychiatry On-Line. WorldCat. As of 2000, there were 51 papers. As of 2006, there appear to be 100—but the papers I checked aren’t dated, so I can’t determine whether this is an ongoing operation. Full archive, but it’s not clear that these are refereed papers.

Research & Reflection: A Journal of Educational Praxis. 1995: 2/12+; 1996: 2/8+; 1997: 2/7+; 1998: 1/2; 1999: 1/1+. Unreachable in early 2001; unreachable in 2006.

Sharp Review (or Katherine Sharp Review.) WorldCat. 1995: 1/7; 1996: 2/8; 1997: 2/11; 1998: 2/9; 1999: 1/5. Ceased 1999. Full archive back to 1995.

Surfaces. 1993: 1/21+; 1994: 1/27+; 1995: 1/11+; 1996: 1/many; 1997: 1/4. WorldCat links dead; unable to locate archive.

Ulam Quarterly. WorldCat. Three volumes published 1992-1996. Live archive back to 1992, only in .ps format.

Ceased Pioneers

Some of these are more drawn-out examples of the arc of enthusiasm. Others may have ceased for any number of reasons. I consider them all qualified successes—except where archives aren’t available.

Architronic: The Electronic Journal of Architecture. WorldCat. 1993: 3/17; 1994: 3/7; 1995: 3/9, 1996: 3/12; 1997: 1/4; 1998: 1/2; 1999: 1/4. Full archive back to 1993.

Complexity International. 1994: 10; 1995: 48; 1996: 34; 1997: 8; 1998: 6; 1999: 35; 2000: 8; 2001-2?: 12. Unclear status. Full archive back to 1994.

De Proverbio. 1995: 2/20+; 1996: 2/20+; 1997: 2/18; 1998: 2/18; 1999: 2/15; 2000: 2/16; 2001: 1/5. Archives not reachable, status uncertain.

Electronic Journal of Analytic Philosophy (EJAP). WorldCat. 1993: 1/5; 1994: 1/6; 1995: 1/6; 1996: 1/6; 1997: 1/7; 1998: 1/10; 2002: 1/7. Full archive back to 1993.

Essays in History. WorldCat. 1993: 6; 1994: 4; 1995: 5; 1996: 5+; 1997: 4+; 1998: 5+; 1999: 3+; 2000: 4+. Full archive back to 1990.

Flora Online. WorldCat. 1987: 12; 1988: 8; 1989: 2; 1990: 4; 1991: 1; 1992: 2; 1993: 1. Ceased 1993. Archive available as zipped versions of diskette-based issues back to 1987.

IOUDAIOS Review. WorldCat. 1993: 26; 1994: 25; 1995: 16; 1996: 8; 1997: 11; 1998: 2; 1999: 1. Reviews only after 1999; none posted for 2000-2001. Restarted in 2002: 2002: 8; 2003: 3. None since 2003. Full but defective archives back to 1993.

Journal of Financial and Strategic Decisions. WorldCat. 1994: 3/25; 1995: 3/24; 1996: 3/26; 1997: 3/25; 1998: 2/18; 1999: 3/21; 2000: 3/27. Ceased at end of 2000. Full archive back to 1994, although journal dates back further.

MC Journal: The Journal of Academic Media Librarianship. WorldCat. 1993: 2/7+; 1994: 2/5+; 1995: 2/3+; 1996: 2/7+; 1997: 2/3+; 1998: 1/7; 1999: 1/4+; 2000: 3/4+; 2001: 1/2+; 2002: 1/2. Ceased 2002. Full archive back to 1993.

Psycoloquy. 1993: 78; 1994: 129; 1995: 90; 1996: 73; 1997: 43; 1998: 126; 1999: 118; 2000: 129; 2001: 63; 2002: 26. Full archive back to 1991.

Public-Access Computer Systems Review (PACS Review). WorldCat. 1993: 6/9+; 1994: 7/8+; 1995: 5/6+; 1996: 6/6+; 1997: 4/5+; 1998: 1/1+. Ceased 2001. Full archive back to 1990.

Surviving Pioneers

Beiträge zur Algebra und Geometrie/Contributions to Algebra and Geometry. WorldCat. 1993: 2/24; 1994: 2/24; 1995: 2/27; 1996: 2/29; 1997: 2/40+; 1998: 2/49?; 1999: 2:40; 2000: 2/49; 2001: 2/47; 2002: 2/46; 2003: 2/48; 2004: 2/54; 2005: 2/42; [2006: 1/20]. Full archive back to 1993; print journal goes back three decades earlier.

Bryn Mawr Classical Review. Reviews only. 1993: unclear; 1994: 12/160; 1995: 12/238; 1996: 12/205; 1997: 12/285; 1998: 12/256; 1999: 12/280; 2000: >250; 2001: >350; 2002: >430; 2003: >430; 2004: >490; 2005: >550; [2006: >400]. Full archive back to 1990.

Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy. 1995: 4; 1996: 5; 1997: 2; 1998: 0; 1999: 2; 2000: 4; 2001: 2; 2002: 4; 2003: 11; 2004: 8; 2005: 12; [2006: 7]. Full archive back to 1995.

Crossroads: The International ACM Student Magazine. WorldCat. 1994: 2/9+; 1995: 4/17+; 1996: 4/20+; 1997: 4/20+; 1998: 4/18+; 1999: 4/24+; 2000: 4/24+; 2001: 5/19+; 2002: 5/16+; 2003: 4/23+; 2004: 4/18+; 2005: 4/20+; [2006: 2/12+] Full archive back to 1994.

CTHEORY / Canadian Journal of Political and Social Theory. (Renamed Theory, technology, and culture, later renamed CTHEORY) WorldCat. 1993: 11+; 1994: 17+; 1995: 26+; 1996: 18+; 1997: 31+; 1998: 30+; 1999: 21+. 2000: 14; 2001: 11; 2002: 14; 2003: 18; 2004: 9; 2005: 18. Full archive back to 1993.

Didaskalia: Ancient Theater Today. 1994: 5/20+; 1995: 3/14+; 1996: 3/12+; 1997: 1/6+. Restarted in 2001, includes video clips. v.4:2 (ends 2001): 3+. v.5 (2001/02): 9+. v. 6 (2004/05): 16+. Full archive back to 1994.

E Law: Murdoch Electronic Journal of Law. 1993: 1/1+; 1994: 3/6+; 1995: 3/10+; 1996: 4/18+; 1997: 4/4+; 1998: 4/5+; 1999: 4/9+; 2000: 3/8+; 2001: 4/11+; 2002: 4/26+; 2003: 4/20+; 2004: 4/24+; 2005: 2/11+. Full archive back to 1993.

Early Modern Literary Studies. 1995: 3/10+; 1996: 3/11+; 1997: 3/3+; 1998: 3/25+; 1999: 3/15+; 2000: 3/15+; 2001: 3/19+; 2002: 3/15+; 2003: 3/18+; 2004: 3/18+; 2005: 3/14+; [2006: 10+]. Full archive back to 1995.

Education Policy Analysis Archives. 1993: 15; 1994: 14; 1995: 20; 1996: 20+; 1997: 22+; 1998: 21+; 1999: 32; 2000: 53; 2001: 51; 2002: 50; 2003: 51; 2004: 73; 2005: 51; [2006: 21]. Full archive back to 1993.

Electronic Antiquity: Communicating the Classics. 1993: 6/23+; 1994: 6/10+; 1995: 4/10+; 1996: 2/3+; 1997: 3/8+; 1998: 2/5+; 1999: 2/5+; 2000: 2+; 2001: 2+; 2003: 1+; 2004: 0+; 2005: 1+; [2006: 1+]. Includes multimedia. Full archive back to 1993.

Electronic Green Journal. 1994: 2/9+; 1995: 2/8+; 1996: 2/5+; 1997: 1/3+; 1998: 2/17+; 1999: 1/4+; 2000: 2/18+; 2001: 2/10+; 2002: 2/9+; 2003: 2/11+; 2004: 1/3+; 2005: 2/10+; [2006: 1/3+]. Full archive back to 1994.

Electronic Journal of Combinatorics. 1994: 1/13; 1995: 1/25; 1996: 2/61; 1997: 2/53; 1998: 1/47; 1999: 1/44+; 2000: 60+; 2001: 60+; 2002: 2/65+; 2003: 1/47+; 2004: 2/123+; 2005: 1/70+; [2006: 1/79+]. Full archive back to 1994.

Electronic Journal of Differential Equations (EJDE). 1993: 8; 1994: 9; 1995: 17; 1996: 11; 1997: 25; 1998: 36; 1999: 50; 2000: 70; 2001: 78; 2002: 103; 2003: 125; 2004: 147; 2005: 148; [2006: 102]. Full archive back to 1993.

Electronic Journal of Sociology. 1994: 1/2; 1995: 2/4; 1996: 2/5; 1997: 3/9; 1998: 2/9; 1999: 3/11; 2000: 2/6; 2001: 2/5; 2002: 4/12; 2003: 4/10; 2004: 4; 2005: 17+; [2006: 4+] Full archive back to 1995.

Electronic Transactions on Numerical Analysis. 1993:7; 1994: 13; 1995: 10; 1996: 11; 1997: 27; 1998: 13; 1999: 20+; 2000: 15; 2001: 10; 2002: 2/21; 2003: 2/25; 2004: 2/26; 2005: 3/35; [2006: 4/43]. Full archive back to 1993.

Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID). More than 100 articles per year. 1995-1998: four issues per year; 1999-2001: six issues per year; 2002-2006: 12 issues per year. Full archive back to 1995.

EOL Journal (was EF/hm: EthnoFORUM/hypermedia). World­Cat. 1995: 2+; 1996: 4+; 1997: 5+; 1998: 1+; 1999: 1+; 2000-2001: CD reviews only; 2002: 1+. Restarted 2005: CD reviews and interviews. Full archive back to 1995.

Federal Communications Law Journal. WorldCat. 1993: 1/5+; 1994: 4/30+; 1995: 2/4+; 1996: 3/10+; 1997: 3/11+; 1998: 3/10+; 1999: 3/16+; 2000. 01/02: 3/20+; 02/03: 3/43+; 03/04: 3/16+; 04/05: 3/23+; 05/06: 3/32+. Full archive back to 1993 (but print journal goes back several decades).

Information Technology and Disabilities. 1994: 4/23+; 1995: 4/17+; 1996: 3/11+; 1997: 3/14+; 1998: 2/15+; 1999: 2/9+; 2000: 1/8+; 2001: 1/3; 2002: 2/8+; 2003: 2/15+; 2004: 2/17; 2005: 1/8. Full archive back to 1994.

Interpersonal Computing and Technology: An Electronic Journal for the 21st Century (IPCT, IPCTJ). WorldCat. 1993: 3/15; 1994: 4/18+; 1995: 4/16+; 1996: 3/10+; 1997: 2/8+; 1998: 2/4+; 1999: 1/3. Restarted 2002: 2002:3; 2004: 2+. Full archive back to 1993, split between two websites (linked from newer to older).

Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship. 1993: 4/14+; 1994: 4/10+; 1995: 1/3+; 1996: 1/5+; 1997: 3/11+; 1998: 4/20+; 1999: 4/16+; 2000: 4/19+; 2001: 4/20; 2002: 4/18; 2003: 2/15; 2004: 3/11; 2005: 3/17; [2006: 3/19]. Full archive back to 1991.

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research (JAIR). 1993: 6; 1994: 14; 1995: 26; 1996: 27; 1997: 19; 1998: 20; 1999: 28; 2000: 20; 2001: 2/25; 2002: 2/27; 2003: 3/44; 2004: 3/34; 2005: 4/72; [2006: 2/27]. Full archive back to 1993.

Journal of Buddhist Ethics. 1994: 3+; 1995: 11+; 1995: 9+; 1997: 6+; 1998: 12+; 1999: 9+; 2000: 7+; 2001: 2+; 2002: 3+; 2003: 4+; 2004: 7+; 2005: 5+; [2006: 4+]. Full archive back to 1994.

Journal of Computer-Mediated Communications (JCMC). 1995: 3/16; 1996: 4/29; 1997: 4/25; 1998: 3/17; 1999: 4/25+; 2000: 4/21+; 2001: 4/19; 2002: 4/27; 2003: 4/29; 2004: 4/31; 2005: 4/72; [2006: 1/12]. Full archive back to 1995.

Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture. 1993: 5/0+; 1994: 6/4+; 1995: 6/5+; 1996: 3/2+; 1997: 1/1+; 1998: none; 1999: 3/5+; 2000: 3/9+; 2001-2002: 3/8+; 2003-2004: 2/10+; 2005: 3/8+; [2006: 1/2+]. Full archive back to 1993.

Journal of Extension. 1993: 4/29++; 1994: 4/27++; 1995: 6/91+; 1996: 6/71+; 1997: 6/64+; 1998: 6/74+; 1999: 6/80+; 2000: 6/22+. 2001 and beyond: 6 issues and more than 100 papers per year. Full archive to 1963, online since 1984 or later.

Journal of Industrial Teacher Education. 1994: 1/4+; 1995: 4/16+; 1996: 4/19+; 1997: 4/17+; 1998: 4/16+; 1999: 4/15+; 2000: 4/20+; 2001: 4/24+; 2002: 4/20+; 2003: 3/14+; 2004: 4/18+; 2005: 3/14+. Full archive to 1994.

Journal of Political Ecology. 1994: 4+; 1995: 3+; 1996: 4+; 1997: 3+; 1998: 3+; 1999: 4+; 2000: 3+; 2001: 3+; 2002: 3+; 2003: 7+; 2004: 3+; 2005: 1+. Full archive back to 1994.

Journal of Statistics Education. 1993: 1/5+; 1994: 2/10+; 1995: 3/12+; 1996: 3/10+; 1997: 3/13+; 1998: 3/14+; 1999: 3/12+; 2000: 3/16+; 2001: 3/16+; 2002: 3/19+; 2003: 2/12+; 2004: 3/17+; 2005: 3/17+; [2006: 2/10+]. Full archive back to 1993.

Journal of Technology Education. 1993: 5/9+; 1994: 2/10+; 1995: 2/10+; 1996: 2/8+; 1997: 2/8+; 1998: 2/9+; 1999: 2/9+; 2000: 2/9+; 2001: 2/8+; 2002: 2/9+; 2003: 2/9+; 2004: 2/8+; 2005: 2/9+. Full archive back to 1989: One of the earliest ejournals.

Journal of World-Systems Research. 1995: 20+; 1996: 30+; 1997: 3/12+; 1998: 2/9+; 1999: 3/21+; 2000: 3/41+; 2001: 2/10+; 2002: 3/15+; 2003: 2/12+; 2004: 3/24+; 2005: 2/14+; [2006: 1/6+]. Full archive back to 1995.

LIBRES. 1995: 3/4+; 1996: 2/5+; 1997: 2/3+; 1998: 2/1+; 1999: 2/3+, 2000: 2/3+; 2001: 2/4+; 2002: 2/4+; 2003: 2/4+; 2004: 2/5+; 2005: 2/5+; [2006: 1/4]. While the journal dates back to 1991, the web archive goes to 1996. I was unable to use the earlier FTP archive.

Medieval Review (formerly Bryn Mawr Medieval Review). Reviews only. 1993: 5/33; 1994: 12/85; 1995: 12/82; 1996: 12/84; 1997: 12/97; 1998:12/136; 1999: 11/161; 2000: 155; 2001: 166; 2002: 194; 2003: 243; 2004: 244; 2005: 202; [2006: 145]. Full archive back to 1993.

Music Theory Online (MTO). Google (DOAJ link requires permission.) 1993: 6/6+; 1994: 5/10+; 1995: 6/10+; 1996: 7/11+; 1997: 5/12+; 1998: 6/15+; 1999: 4/4+; 2000: 5/15+; 2001: 6/7+; 2002: 4/8+; 2003: 4/13+; 2004: 4/16+; 2005: 4/15+; [2006: 2/7+]. Full archive back to 1993.

New Horizons in Adult Education. 1993: 1/4; 1994: 2/4+; 1995: 1/1+; 1996: 1/1+; 1997: 1/2+; 1998: 2/?; 1999: 1/1+; 2000: 3/7; 2001: 2/4; 2002: 3/6+; 2003: 3/7+; 2004: 4/10+; 2005: 4/12+; [2006: 1/4+]. Full archive back to 1987; possibly the oldest surviving OA journal.

New York Journal of Mathematics. 1994-95: 13; 1996: 7; 1997: 16; 1998: 17; 1999: 13; 2000: 16; 2001: 18; 2002: 17; 2003: 19; 2004: 19; 2005: 31; [2006: 16]. Full archive back to 1994.

PSYCHE; an Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Consciousness. 1993: 3+; 1994: 4+; 1995: 2+; 1996: 4+; 1997: 1+; new signs of life: 1998/99: 13?; 2000: 4; 2001: 0+; 2002: 5; 2003: 3+; 2004: 1+; 2005: 9+; [2006: 9+]. Full archive back to 1993.

Solstice: An Electronic Journal of Geography and Mathematics. 1993: 2/5+; 1994: 2/6+; 1995: 2/3+; 1996: 2/5; 1997: 2/5+; 1998: 2/5+; 1999: 2/4+; 2000: 2/7+; 2001: 2/6+; 2002: 2/9+; 2003: 2/9+; 2004: 2/12+; 2005: 2/6+; [2006: 1/3+] Full archive back to 1990.

TESL-EJ: Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language: An Electronic Journal. 1994: 2/7+; 1995: 2/6+; 1996: 2/4+; 1997: 3/7+; 1998: 2/5+; 1999: 3/6+; 2000: 2/4+; 2001: 3/6+; 2002: 4/8+; 2003: 4/12+; 2004: 4/9+; 2005: 4/20+; [2006: 2/5+]. Full archive back to 1994.

Web Journal of Current Legal Issues. 1995: 5/44+; 1996: 5/39+; 1997: 5/33+; 1998: 5/29+; 1999: 5/20+; 2000: 5/13+; 2001: 5/13+; 2002: 5/10; 2003: 5/12; 2004: 5/14; 2005: 5/11; [2006: 3/21+]. Full archive to 1995.

Is This the Universe?

Probably not. See Part II of this Perspective.

Cites & Insights: Crawford at Large, Volume 6, Number 12, Whole Issue 82, ISSN 1534-0937, a journal of libraries, policy, technology and media, is written and produced by Walt Crawford, a senior analyst at OCLC.

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